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Robots are automatic electro-mechanical machines. Some are not fully automatic but are remotely controlled by humans using TV and other feedback. Most are used to move parts into and out of fabricating machines such as machine tools. Others are used to manipulate fabricating devices such as spot welders, arc welders, and paint sprayers. Others are used as remote manipulators in deep sea, radioactive laboratory, satellite, hot and dangerous factory, and other environments hostile to humans. Some are mobile, traveling on land, sea, or air, propelled with wheels, water propellers, and air propellers (or jets). Guided missiles and drones are classes of robot.

Automatic controls vary from a few relays to highly sophisticated computer systems. Mobile robots often to carry TV and other sensors as partial or total payloads. Human controls extend from simple push buttons to joysticks with force feedback. Communication systems include radio, sonar, optical fiber, and wire.

Many robots are constructed as a chain of hinged links in imitation of the human arm. Others ( Cartesian ) have stacked linear slides, as in a milling machine, and others are hybrids of these. All are limited by the impossibility of matching the capability of the human hand under control of the human eye and brain. A variety of two finger tongs and clever special purpose mechanisms are provided.

Much robot engineering was inspired by science fiction artificial people, but science fiction is fiction. Nevertheless much R & D money continues to flow in futile attempts to make artificial people by duplicating the hand and to propel by walking.

Much quite useful R & D is spent on computer hardware and software to approach the capability of the human mind and in automatic control technology.

Questions? Telephone me at 619-224-3494 or e-mail No charge!

Lawrence Kamm, Consulting Electro-Mechanical Engineer

Lawrence Kamm
Licensed Prof. Engr.
B.S. and M.S. in Electrical Engineering
"I calls 'em as I sees 'em"
phone: 619-224-3494
fax: 619-224-3495
1515 Chatsworth Blvd.
San Diego CA 92107